Международная студенческая научно-практическая конференция «Инновационное развитие государства: проблемы и перспективы глазам молодых ученых». Том 2

Rebikova I.S., Kolomoychenko O.E., Dmitreva V.A.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine


Agriculture is one of the main industry branches which is essential in the issue of food supplying for the population and raw materials for industry. Country food security depends on the development of agricultural production; the level and quality of supplying food products directly influence on the social position in society and the health of nation in general.

Agriculture as a sector of material production has several features that affect its functioning in the conditions of market economy. The first one is related to the resources immobility, which is a barrier for redistributing them (except labor) from agriculture to industry and other industries. This means that this industry is not directly involved in forming the average rate of return among industries.

Socio-economic characteristics are in multifaceted usage forms of the property. These are companies, private businesses, farms, state-owned enterprises. Agriculture is characterized by increasing integration of different communication forms.

Most of the products remain in agriculture and are used to restore the production of seeds and planting material used for seeding and planting, milk – for watering the calves, eggs and poultry – for the output of young, honey – for feeding bees, etc.Furthermore, all products are fodder crops and pastures used for livestock and livestock products such as manure – a valuable organic fertilizer.

In agriculture, the working period (the time of direct use of living and working) does not coincide with a period of (time from start of production until a finished product). As a result of this offset occurs seasonality of production, which is manifested in uneven and intermittent use of labor and means of production in non-uniform products and receive income during the year. It requires the development of measures to mitigate seasonality and taking into account this factor when choosing a specialization.

Despite the constant attention to the problems of the industry, both the state and the farms, there remain many unresolved quite complex problems, which may include the need for land reform. It concerns a moratorium on the sale of agricultural land. Other problems are posed by low quality products and the efficiency of agriculture, which mainly depends on the competence of administrative staff, for control of AIC should not politicians, and professionals. Also technical equipment has a great impact on product quality at each level of AIC. Big agro-industrial complexes have high quality modern technology, but most of the farms in Ukraine are unable to buy it. Now more urgent is the establishment of grain exchanges to facilitate transactions of sale. It has become a pricing element and a platform for meeting the demand and supply of grain. Everything together makes the relevance of the chosen topic.

We have investigated the indicators of the industry and based on official statistics. The basement of agricultural production is land resources. Land which is suitable for agriculture, known as agricultural land. Agricultural land covers around the globe about 1/3 land, or 4.5 billion hectares in Ukraine this figure in 2009 was 40,773 hectares, representing 67.5% of the total territory.

Agriculture is part of the agricultural sector and includes the following major areas: livestock and crop production. In 2009 the volume of agricultural production amounted to 102,093 million. Plant products are 61,545mln, representing 60.28% of the total.So in the livestock farming accounts 39.72%.

The largest volume of production in crop is potatoes, vegetables, melons and grain – 24,723 and 19,444 mln, respectively, in the field of animal production – livestock and poultry. The largest volume of agricultural products are produced in Cherkassy (6753 mln) and Kyiv (6627 mln) regions. Then it is Dnipropetrovsk and Vinnytsia region. The smallest amount of production is showed in Chernivtsi (2064 mnl.hrn) and Transcarpathia (2215 mln.hnr) region.

In 2009, the financial results of activities in Ukraine was negative -42414.7 mln. The positive financial results in 2009 showed only two sectors: agriculture, hunting, forestry and transport and communication.

The dynamics of agricultural production is rather uneven.The largest increase production was in 2004 and 2008 and 15,260 and 15,209 mln, respectively. Negative increments were observed in 2003, 2007 and 2009. In general, there is positive dynamics of indicators. On average during this period the volume of production was 90,744.78 million. Average growth rate was 103.94 mln.

The positive trend of the industry appears to increase such economic indicators as output, value added, the increase in fixed assets and improve their quality. Similar structural changes may be due to reproduction and improvement of fixed assets. Capital investments are increasing, so for the years 2006-2009 by 21%.

Global food prices steadily rising trend and this tendency will go on. With proper and rational use of internal resources of our country we can become the food exporter number 1 in Europe. Taking into account high availability of plowed lands – 0.65 ha / person is correct. Way of development. All schemes for the development of agriculture should be developed on national level.