Международная студенческая научно-практическая конференция «Инновационное развитие государства: проблемы и перспективы глазам молодых ученых». Том 2

Shapovalova A.K., Finogeeva O.V., Burlakova O.N.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine


Modern processes of the globalization of the world economy, world integration processes have led to the growth of competition in the international markets as well as in the domestic market of Ukraine. Particularly topical this problem is for industries of machine-building complex of Ukraine, because the economic situation depends on their level development to a large extend.

So, today Ukrainian mechanical engineering plays a key role in promotion of competitiveness of the commodity producers in the domestic and foreign markets of our country. Mechanical engineering is defined as an important industry of the developed countries in the world; largely it determines not only the branch structure of industry, but also its placement.

The level of mechanical engineering development is one of the main indicators of economic and especially country’s industrial development. So, in modern industry of economically developed countries mechanical engineering, as a rule, has only 24-39% of the value of industrial production.

Insufficient development of mechanical engineering in the country, even with high rates of other industrial facilities, is a structural lack of real production sector.

In spite of the fact that the Ukrainian mechanical engineering products are exported to 77 countries in the world, the structure of Ukraine's foreign trade does not correspond to modern trends in the international market and is characterized by low level of quality of many traditional and potential exports. For example, in 1990 mechanical engineering occupied 32% of total industrial production in the USSR. After gaining the “independence” of Ukraine, its share decreased to 12.5%. That is, the most important indicator of technological and industrial development of the country reduced by two thirds. The emergence of a systemic crisis was caused by the initial interest of the industry in the output of military products, the destruction of inter-branch relations as well as interindustrial, the legal reasons, the finance and taxation system of the construction cycles, the plant managers reluctance to adequately respond to what is going on in the country. The USSR’s self-liquidating and the subsequent formation of a half dozen of new states were associated with nearly one-stage breakdown of cooperation ties, established in the industry.

It should be noted that the current problems is in the same system of the identification of priorities of industry development, which does not take into account global trendsand domestic wants of national economy. Under the circumstances, piecemeal actions and sometimes not consistent government actions can not drastically change the situation,and even under the conditions of a substantial increase in the level of annual financing of industry policy remains ineffective.

A steady rapid decline in the Ukrainian mechanical engineering is accompanied by its equally rapid scientific and technical degradation.

Products of the Ukrainian machine-building complex are characterized by low technical level, which is not corresponding to modern scientific and technological achievementsas well as requirements in the world. This fact can be explained by the lack of research activities in the Ukrainian mechanical engineering and the lack of implementation of innovation in the domestic industrial sector.

Thus, we can identify current problems of the Ukrainian mechanical engineering:

· inefficient government policy concerning the activities of monopolists and mediators, which leads to an increase in the cost of materials and energy resources;

· poor infrastructure of the domestic market (no real monitoring system and the distribution system as well as financial leasing);

· lack of working assets, the imperfection of the mechanism of medium-and long-term lending;

· depreciation of fixed assets, which reduces the competitiveness, quality and cost of production;

· lack of ability to pay of commodity producers, adversely affects the financial and economic condition of mechanical engineering;

· limited domestic demand for Ukrainian products;

· low level of innovation activity of Ukrainian enterprises;

· dependence of Ukrainian enterprises on the supply of components from other countries;

· lack of working assets, the imperfection of the mechanism, lack of adequate financing, all these factors lead to the impossibility of reconstruction and technical re-equipping of industry’s enterprises as well as security at the expense of the high quality of the machinery and equipment, commercial production of new competitive technologies;

· lack of financial mechanisms and instruments that create an interest in innovation, and stimulate scientific research and development activities;

· a significant outflow of qualified engineering skills and skilled personnel.

Ukrainian machine-building complex contains a considerable scientific and production potential, there are a third of industrial production assets and nearly half of industrial production potential here, but further development is possible only in the development of appropriate public policies and the implementation of effective economic incentives forenhancing the mechanical facilities and its technological reorientation.