Danilov S.O., Torba O.O., Rieznik M.A.

*Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine*

**APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN STATISTICS**

State statistics is one of the most important inter-industry links in the system of economic management of a country. It is designed to solve problems studying mass phenomena, to identify their complex relationship and interaction, as well as to provide a scientifically based assessment of functioning and development of the economy.

Statistical information is a kind of economic information, containing different data of socio-economic nature, which can be recorded, transmit, ted, modified, stored and used to solve social and economic problems.

Socio-economic information is characterized by its mass character (large volumes), repeated cycles of receiving and processing data at a stated time, a large proportion of data used for further processing or long-term storage [1].

The use of computers, statistical software packages in particular, while working with statistical data allows maximum automation of data processing and high reliability of obtaining information at minimal cost and labor use.

Standard statistical methods of data processing are included in spreadsheets such as Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1-2-3, QuattroPro, and general-purpose mathematical packages, such as Mathcad. But specialized statistical packages that allow to apply the most modern methods of mathematical statistics for processing data have much greater capabilities.

Among the software tools of this type we can distinguish highly specialized packages, primarily statistic ones – Statistica, SPSS, STADIA, STATGRAPHICS, which have a large set of statistical procedures: factor analysis, regression analysis, cluster analysis, multivariate analysis, criteria for approval, etc. These software products usually contain tools for visual interpretation of results: different graphs, charts, presentation of data on a map.

While analyzing statistical data the user of a software package has to perform calculations of a wide range of statistics, transfer and convert the data for analysis, as well as represent the results in a visual form. Therefore, to choose a statistical package it is necessary to pay attention primarily to the following features:

· ease of data management (import / export data, their restructuring);

· statistical diversity (a number of statistical units);

· graphic capabilities (a built-in graphics editor, the ability to display certain elements of a chart, the possibility of exporting graphs).

In addition, the usability of the package, ease of mastering it (built-in help system, user's manual, certain degree of ease of managing data, results of calculations, tables and graphs), as well as the speed of making calculations are of great importance [2].

The most popular software packages to work with statistical information are the following ones:

**MS Excel** – a widespread software to work with statistical information, with the Russian version, close integration with MS Word and PowerPoint. However, MS Excel is a spreadsheet with powerful mathematical capabilities, where some statistical functions are just optional built-in formulas. Calculations, made with its help, are not recognized by reputable journals and publications. Certainly, MS Excel is well suited to data acquisition, conversion of the intermediate and preliminary statistical estimations to build certain types of diagrams. However, the final statistical analysis must be done in the programs that are specifically designed for this purpose.

**SPSS **(Statistical Package for Social Science) is the most commonly used package of statistical data processing with more than a 40-year history. SPSS package is built like a traditional database: the accumulation of an array of information, its formalization and presentation of the results of statistical array processing in a report. Also, SPSS is flexible, powerful, suitable for all types of calculations used in statistics.

**STATISTICA **is a program produced by the company StatSoft Inc. (USA), which has been producing statistical applications since 1985. STATISTICA includes a large number of methods of statistical analysis (more than 250 built-in functions). Easy to learn, this statistical package can be recommended for statistical calculations of any complexity. It allows you to conduct an exhaustive, comprehensive data analysis, represent the analysis’s results in tables and charts, automatically create activity reports.

**STADIA** is a program of national development, which includes all the necessary statistical functions. It copes with its task, the statistical analysis perfectly well. But the program looks virtually unchanged since 1996. Graphs and diagrams built by STADIA, look archaic in today's presentations. The color scheme of the program is very tiring. Positive qualities of the program include Russian-language interface and availability of books describing the work.

**STATGRAPHICS PLUS** is quite a powerful statistical software, which contains more than 250 statistical functions and generates clear, customized reports. It should be noted that earlier versions of this program were very popular with local statisticians [3].

Currently, Ukraine is modernizing the state bodies of statistics in technical terms. Up-to-date personal computers and local area networks are been introduced into statistical design.

The main characteristic of the modernization process is a complete transition to the development of statistical information using personal computers in a LAN. This fundamental change of technical resource base changes the organization of labor of an economist considerably. The process of automating statistical data processing becomes a part of statistician’s job, giving him new opportunities to work with information resources.

The use of electronic forms to replace paper is a new solution in methods of collecting socio-economic information. Electronic form is nothing but a computer program for data entry. Electronic forms are being developed for statistical monitoring for both the PC and for micro-PCs and PDAs, which eventually will eliminate paper forms to fill the observations in and will help all the way to go paperless.

**Literature:**

1. Божко. В.П. Информационные системы в статистике / В.П. Божко; под ред. В.П. Божко и А.В. Хорошилова. – М.: Финстатинформ, 2002. – 144 с.

2. Борисова С.Ф. Компьютер и Интернет для социолога [**Електронний ресурс]. –** Режим доступу: http://www.unn.ru/fsn/k2/courses/borisova.htm

3. **Електронний ресурс. – Режим доступу: **http://bsmu.by