Gubenko M.

*Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University*

**PERSPECTIVES OF THE QUANTUM COMPUTER**

Informational technologies developing faster than their efficiency being realized.

In accordance with Moore’s Law, the number of transistors in microprocessors continues to double every 18 month, so by the year 2030 the circuits in microprocessors will be measured on an atomic scale. The next logical step is to create quantum computer, which will use the power of atoms to perform memory and to process tasks. Such computer has the potential to perform certain calculations much faster than any silicon based computer.

• A quantum computer is a computation device that makes direct use of quantum mechanical phenomena (e.g. superposition) to perform operations on data. Quantum computers are different from digital ones based on transistors.

**How the quantum computer will work**

• A quantum computer will store information as either a 1 and 0 or quantum superposition of both states simultaneously. Such “quantum bit”, called qubit, allows greater flexibility than the binary system.

Let’s consider the following example: if a qubit is in a superposition of the states 1 and 0, and it performs a calculation with another qubit in the same superposition, then 1 calculation obtains 4 results: 0/0; 0/1; 1/0; 1/1. The obtained mathematical results, applied to a quantum system, last as long as the system is in superposition of states until it collapses down into 1 state. The ability of quantum computer to perform multiple computations simultaneously is called quantum parallelism.

**Benefits of the quantum computer**

• A quantum computer will be able to store more bits of information in its memory than there are particles in the universe.

• The power of a single quantum computer will give an ability to simulate the whole world in a holographic environment, modulate different systems (economical, ecological, financial etc.), solve great number of equations necessary to create extremely accurate forecasts and simulate subatomic particles interactions and to understand how every single process in the world works.

• Several quantum computers linked together will create so powerful quantum Internet, that search engines will respond the queries almost like a human being, immediately.

**Disadvantages which prevent the creating of the quantum computer**

• The qubit calculations are performed while the quantum wave function is in a state of superposition between states 1 and 0, however, when a measurement of any type is made to a quantum system, decoherence breaks down and the wave function collapses into 1 state. Therefore, computer has to somehow continue making these calculations without having any measurements made until the proper time. After this time the calculated result can then drop out of the quantum sate. Then the system has to have a measurement taken to read the result, which then gets passed on to the rest of the system. That way a process of computing has a contradiction with itself.

• In order to create a quantum computer it is necessary to combine realms of superconductors, nanotechnology and quantum electronics. Each of these has been so far fully developed, so the attempt to merge them all together is quite complicated scientific task.

• The perfect working quantum computer would be able to devastate world’s financial system by ripping through their computer security encryptions, which are based on factoring large numbers that literally cannot be cracked by traditional computers within the life span of the universe. A quantum computer would be able to factor numbers in a reasonable period of time.