Hrushevska M., Osadcha L., Tsvetaeva O.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


 Starting from the second half of the XVIII century, the world began the transition from manual labor to machines, from manufactory to factory. The process was called Industrial or Great Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution began in Britain in the last third of the XVI century and adopted in the first half of the XIX century, comprehensive, covering then other countries in Europe and America. The result is a steam engine, textile industries and metallurgy. All this has led to the ejection a large number of air gases and combustion products (ash, slag, volatile gases) cause raise average temperature on Earth at 0.7 ° C. The greenhouse effect was discovered by Joseph Fourier in 1824 and was first investigated quantitatively Svante Arrhenius in 1896. The process of gradual increase in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans in the XX and XXI centurieswas called global warming. This term was employed August 8, 1975 the American climatologist Wallace Broker in the U.S. journal Science, in which he published an article entitled "Climate Change: Are we on the threshold of rapid global warming?’. The author spoke about a possible change in trend – from the gradual reduction in global temperatures to their growth. This term he describes the consequences of human impact on the climate. Recognizing the problem of potential global climate change, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) established in 1988 by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It is open to all member states of the UN and WMO. The main task of the IPCC is a regular review of indicators of climate change. IPCC prepares special reports and technical papers on issues that require independent scientific information and advice as well as support the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), through its work on methodologies for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. The Convention was adopted by the "Earth Summit" in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 and entered into force on 21 March 1994. Agreement on the general principles of action on climate change, has been signed by more than 180 countries, including the former USSR and the industrialized countries. Estimates obtained from climate models of the IPCC report in 2007, reported that at the beginning XXII century, average global surface temperature could rise 1.8 to 3.4 ° C. In addition to sea level rise, global temperature will also lead to changes in the amount and distribution of precipitation. This can result in become more frequent natural disasters: floods, droughts, storms and other. Warming should probably increase the frequency and magnitude of these events. Another possible effect of the increase in global temperatures is to reduce crop yields in underdeveloped countries in Africa, Asia, Latin America and increase yields in developed countries due to the increase in carbon dioxide concentration and longer growing seasons. Climate warming may lead to a shift of species ranges to the polar zones and increase the probability of extinction of indigenous species inhabitants of the coastal areas and islands, whose existence is now under threat. The report of the working group of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (Shanghai, 2001) was given seven models of climate change in the XXI century. Key Findings – Continued global warming, accompanied by an increase in greenhouse gas emissions, increasing the surface temperature of the air, reducing the temperature variations, sea ​​level rise. The most likely changes in weather conditions are more intense rainfall, higher maximum temperatures, more hot days and reducing the number frost days in almost all regions of the world and in most areas of the continental heat waves will become more frequent. In addition to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, also adopted the Kyoto Protocol – an international treaty adopted in Kyoto (Japan) in December 1997, in addition to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).