Kapusta V., Stybul V., Tsvetaeva L.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


Wood – it is a combination of land, vegetation, dominated by trees and shrubs, animals, microorganisms and other natural components in their development of biologically interrelated, affect each other and the environment.

Forests different from Woodland based closing cover: in the forest branches and foliage crowns of individual trees overlap, although in this case, thereand may areas of open terrain – meadows. Woodland almost universally characterized by the presence of open soil with trees, distant from each other on a distance greater than the radius of their crowns. Forests can be found in any region where natural conditions are suitable for sustainable growth trees above sea level (and sometimes below) the line alpine meadows, except for areas where the natural frequency of fires too large, or the environment suffers from the press by natural or anthropogenic factors.

In general, forests dominated by angiosperms (to broad) inherent significantly more bio-diversity than forests dominated by gymnosperms (conifers). But to this rule there are exceptions: for example, aspen-birch forests in northern latitudes have lower rates of biodiversity than thence coniferous forests. Some forests contain many individual species of trees on a small area (such as tropical rain forests and deciduous forests of the temperate zone), and some only a few species that cover large areas (mountain pine forests).

The largest forest biomes are:

• Rain forests (dank tropical forest),

• Taiga,

• Broadleaf,

• Tropical dry forests.

Total forest area in Ukraine – more than 10 million hectares, which is 17.2% of its territory. The largest forest cover – in the Ukrainian Karpats 32%.A wood area in natural plains naturally decreases from north to south. The forests are dominated by young and middle-wood species such as pine, spruce, oak. They cover about 90% of forest covered area.

Forests of Ukraine in its purpose and placement function mostly water protection, safety, hygiene, health and other functions and provide the needs of society in forest resources. 15.4% of the forests belong to the reserve and this proportion tends to increase.

The total stock stands at the beginning of 2012 amounted to 1 billion 512 million cubic meters.

According to scientists, one sunny day hectare forest absorbs from the air 120-280 kg of carbon dioxide and releases oxygen 180-200 kg. One tree produces medium size sufficient for three men breathing oxygen. Hectare pine forest holds 40 tons of dust and leaf – 100 tons.

Forests have a huge impact on the climate and soil condition. In the summer when it rains and rains wood retains moisture on the leaves and branches in autumn – the fallen leaves, roots and moss. Turning wood moisture gradually by evaporating it back into the atmosphere, where clouds are formed, which are again converted to precipitation as rain. Winter forests accumulate snow and give it a quick melt until spring. Without forests water melting snow and rain rapidly drains into bed streams and rivers, thus eroding the soil, forming gullies and cause flooding downstream. Moisture, arriving to the rivers, barely escapes back into the air, therefore often start drought [1].

The biggest problem at the moment is illegal deforestation. All Ukrainian forest illegally cut wood. First, industry thrives especially in the western regions. This forest occupies20-40% of the territory. Cut down common in the region pine trees and also more expensive. One of the reasons of illegal felling’s in Ukraine consider poverty Ukrainian in villages near forests. Many of them do not have enough money for firewood, so cut down a few trees to heat the home – a common occurrence. In the western regions as telling local foresters, people steal wood for building houses and outbuildings.

There is the Law of Ukraine "On the ban on deforestation and the introduction of a moratorium on the export of timber – and timber."This law establishes rules aimed at preventing deforestation Ukraine and state support of domestic timber processing enterprises. The objective of the Law is to regulate the legal relationship in order to improve performance, protection and restoration of forests, sustainable use of forest resources, improve the economic situation of domestic enterprises, protection of the consumer market of Ukraine, the interests of domestic producers and improve the structure of exports.

Forests must be cut very carefully. The massive felling of trees can cause sudden changes in temperature (colder in winter, warmer in summer), demolition of topsoil. As a result, the site cleared forests formed desert. This applies particularly to the southern areas of Ukraine. Earlier Celina Northern Black Sea grew lush grass, oak, groves and forests, but now there is only a bare steppe, which on all sides blown winds.

According to the World Wildlife Fund (WWF), 40 years and biological resources of the Earth will be completely exhausted. With forests worst situation: kill them in a matter of days, and they grow for decades. So you should think about how we replenish natural resources in order to restore ecological balance [1].

The list of references:

1. Web resource. – Access mode: http://www.climateinfo.org.ua/content/ virubuvannya-lisiv-sprichinyae-zmini-klimatu