Khomyakova A., Sokolova N. O., Osadcha O. V.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


The specialists dealing with business sphere and marketing have long admitted the significance of graphic art for representation of complicated data, which is also right for a scientific sphere. Although static bar charts are a comfortable way to depict various data about trade matters, they cannot always be used to represent the research in formation. Sometimes to depict mathematical principles, natural phenomena and biological structures we need a three-dimensional animation, for the realization of which it is necessary to have very complicated systems, gigabytes of data and a high level of programming.

 The term 3D (3-dimensional) means that all the objects are characterized by three parameters, i.e. width, height and depth. In computer graphic art objects exist only in the computer memory. They do not have any physical form, in fact – they are huge combinations of numbers and mathematical formulas, as well as electrons "running" inside the computer.

 Modeling of the scene includes some categories of objects:

-  geometry (built with the help of different techniques, e.g. a building);

-  materials (information about visual properties of the model, e.g. wall color and reflecting/refracting ability of windows;

-  light sources (installation-specific settings of direction, power, light spectrum);

-  virtual cameras (the choice of point and angle of projection);

-  powers and effects (installation-specific settings of dynamic object distortions);

-  additional effects (objects imitating atmosphere phenomena: the light in the fog, clouds, flame).

 The graphic 3D-processor can perform the following functions:

 1. Texture mapping. This is the most widespread effect for surface modeling. For example, the front of the building would need the representation of many verges for modeling many bricks, windows and doors. However, the texture gives more realism but requires fewer calculating resources because it allows working with the whole front as a single surface.

 2. Bilinear filtration – the method of removing image distortion. While slight rotating or object movement, we can notice the skipping of pixels from one place to another, which causes flickering. To reduce this effect in bilinear filtration for representation of the surface point, we need to take weighed mean of four adjacent texture pixels.

3. Trilinear filtration is a bit more difficult. To get each pixel image, we take the weighed mean of the results of bilinear filtration two levels. The image received will be more clear-cut and less flickering.

 Due to its advantages 3-D graphic can be applied in many spheres. One way to apply the computer graphic art in the sphere of scientific researches is the systems of weather modeling. Three-dimensional graphics allows us to demonstrate high and low regions of pressure, air flows, precipitations and other factors for exact weather modeling.

 New technologies of three-dimensional modeling are also used in the sphere of medical research. One of the most impressive achievements is the elaboration of the most exact three-dimensional model of human body, the level of detailed elaboration of which couldn’t even be imagined earlier.

 The latest abilities of three-dimensional technologies are used while creating flight simulator to imitate a plane control precisely. Such systems are very useful in educating pilots because we can program weather conditions with dangerous meteorological conditions or with mechanical breakage of a plane. The flight simulator allows the pilot to be put under extreme conditions which may appear in real life.

 And finally, while describing three-dimensional technologies, we can’t but mention the virtual reality (VR). The abilities of this unbelievable technology are really unlimited, from distant controlling of surgeries to various films and games.