Plokhotniuk  A. O., Lazutkina A. V.

Odessa National academy of food technologies


Merchandising is a branch of marketing theory and practice concerned with maximizing product sales by designing, packaging, pricing, and displaying goods in a way that stimulates higher sales volume. The underlying assumption in mer­chandising is that consumers may have a general need for (or interest in) a certain class of product, and it is the merchandiser's task to present the product in a way that best captures consumers' attention and persuades them that the product will fulfill their needs and wants.

Merchandising at the restaurant business – is the psychological ways of influen­cing the customers behavior. They formulate the establishment’s profit and make customers more loyal. The main elements of restaurant merchandising are: advertisements at the places, merchandising menu, directing the service, sampling, psychological influence on customer’s behavior

Let us consider in this article such elements of psychological influence on customer’s behavior as sound, smell, light and color.

Lighting – is an important element of designing the restaurant because the light helps to create necessary atmosphere and can influence the food improving its value.

According to the American Lighting Association restaurants should have no less than 2 levels of light consisting of task and accent lighting, with a high recommendation of dimmable light bulbs and systems. By using multiple lighting fixture types a design image can create brilliant displays of decor, and architecture while providing a primary focus on the dining table. The dining table is where light balance becomes crucial for a restaurant. If a table is poorly lit, food can appear dull and unappealing despite flavor and presentation. Meanwhile over illuminated tables can be too bright and distract from a pleasant dining experience.

Color. Color combinations can make guests hungry, depressed, happy and agitated, eat fast, or eat leisurely. Changing the color scheme of a dining room can noticeably increase (or decrease) business. Color can be used to change the shape and add interest to the rooms. For example during the eating, white color influenced on customers more positive than the colored one. But after meal orange color causes a pleasant feeling, and even mild euphoria.

The colors are divided on some groups: stimulant or warm (red, brown, orange), neutral (yellow, green, grey), calm or cold (blue, violet). The warm colors stimulate the physic activity and make a pleasant atmosphere. But cold colors are relaxing.

Sound system. Sounds are the part of a restaurant atmosphere. Kitchen noises, customer voices (talking, laughing), traffic noises, and dish bussing all add to the atmosphere. Noise in a dining area is not always undesirable. The correct type of background music puts customers in a good mood. Foreground music, loud enough to be easily heard over the ambient sound of the room with out interrupting conversation, is used in most type of cafes. Recreational music, loud enough to dominate the atmosphere of the room is used for bars and discotheques. The higher alcohol sales in a restaurant, the greater the customers toleration and need for louder music.

The psychologist say that the fast music make people move faster in front of the rows of stalls and slow music increase the time spending for choosing goods. MacDonald’s use such principles inside the restaurants. Special worker analyses the quantity of customers at the restaurant. Then he makes a decision of what music will play. If there are lots of visitors they play fast music in order to empty the paces for other visitors. But if there is a few people the quite music is playing. Its stimulate the customers to spend more time at the establishment and to spend much more money.

Smell involves both pleasant and unpleasant odors. Smells can positively contribute to the atmosphere. The aroma of fresh brewed coffee, oven-baked bread, fresh cut flowers, and a pine scented breeze can heighten the appetite.

But we must know that the perception of smell by people depends on the specific of their culture. The same smell can cause different fillings. For example the smell of church incense can excite the Europeans. But for the Indian Buddhist this smell will mean nothing.

So sound, smell, light and color are the main parts of restaurant success.