Yevsyevskaya V., Tsvetayeva O., Bezugly V.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


Among the most harmful chemical contaminants, it was outlined in International Convention for the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of wastes in the 1972, oil and petroleum products were include. The major source of pollution are local, domestic and industrial waste water, oil, and other radioactive materials.

According to estimates of the National Research Council of the USA \ National Research Council almost 1.5 million m3 of oil and petroleum products get into the water annually, about 45% of leaks are of natural causes, such as oil from subsea reservoirs spontaneously poured into the sea. Approximately 5% of the oil gets into the sea, oceans and lakes as a result of extraction and production. Transport accidents (tankers, pipelines, etc.) provide 22% of such spills. The rest of oil (28%) falls into the water as a result of hundreds and thousands of small accidents and leaks that are often not noticed the press, government, and law enforcement agencies: the cause may be, for example, leaking gas tank on a boat or inadequate treatment facilities working (Fig. 1).

Fig. 1. The main causes of falling oil and petroleum products

Fig. 1. The main causes of falling oil and petroleum products

into the waters of the ocean

In 1969, during the voyage a cross the Atlantic on a papyrus boat "Ra", Thor Heyerdahl noticed that the surface of the sea was free of the globules of oil and tar for only a few days for theen tire two-month period of travel. Today, the situation is not improved. According to the National Academy of Sciences of the United States in the mid-70's of the twentieth century 6 million tons of oil felt into the sea about. By the end of 70's oil spill in the seas and oceans were increased to 10 million tons a year. The greatest harm caused oil spills from tanker accidents and accidents on offshore drilling platforms.

It is estimated that 200 000 tons of oil is enough to make all the Baltic Sea into a biological desert. The contaminants increase the sensitivity of marine mammals especially seals, to the distemper, which struck the Caspian Sea in 2000, that killed at least 30 thousand of this species. Probably metal pollutants in the ocean are also the cause of skin ulcers and liver enlargement of the fish, including flounder, 20% of the population is in the North Sea affected by these diseases.

Thus the problem of pollution of the oceans is really actual today. It is a topic for discussion for most experts and oceanographers. Pollution of surface waters of the Earth may cause the changes in water cycle, thermal conditions, atmospheric circulation, climate change, etc. Expressing serious concern over its pollution, specialist marine scientists believe that only the combined efforts of all countries in the world you can protect the oceans and preserve his wealth for present and future generations.