Варлан К. Є., Посудієвська О. Р., Кузьменко О. Л.

Дніпропетровський національний університет імені Олеся Гончара


The origin and development of many branches of science and technique are obliged to the appearance of the specific class of synthetic compounds – polymers. They gave the basis for creation of materials with the complex of unique properties which natural and traditional artificial materials don’t possess. Without polymers no modern electrical engineering, energy engineering, mechanic engineering, aircraft and rocket building space exploration would exist. Some modern polymeric composition materials exceed steel in strength and are used at 550 °C and higher. Such materials are used for building of helicopters – 45–50 % of the composition; battle airplanes – 25–30 %, rockets – 75–80 %, armed rocket engines working on solid fuel – 85–90 %.

Among the above mentioned synthetic materials special place is occupied by materials on the basis of epoxy resins. The complex of valuable properties stipulated their wide use almost in all spheres of human activity of man. A great number of single-functional materials were created. Epoxides are widely used, in particular, in the space system engineering as multifunctional products. They are the components of composition for construction materials, solid fuel rocket charges, armor coating, protective and fastening elements in solid fuel engines etc. Another promising knowledge – intensive area of technique, where polymeric epoxy materials are used, is the so-called small-scale engineering energy. In particular, film and membrane materials that possess specific properties, not characteristic for the known polymers, are offered on the basis of epoxides. They possess different types of conductivity, diffusive permeability, sorption and ion-exchange properties. Due to the combination of the above-mentioned properties such materials are used in electrochemical packages, such as fuel and lithium sources of current, solar batteries. Similar pellicle materials are used in gas sensors, systems of sorption and thin division etc. It should be noted that the progress in the sphere of creation of electrochemical packages is indissolubly connected with progress in space engineering.

Among promising materials of such type home and foreign researchers point out stereo-chemical cross-linked polymers with ammonium groups – polymeric anionites. In particular, such materials were obtained on the basis of interpolymer complexes formed from poliepichlorohydrin and polyvinylpyridine.

With the purpose of search of new promising film polymeric materials, satisfying to the complex of special materials, we synthesized and investigated the systems based on oligomerous diepoxides and piperazine. As diepoxides we used diglycidyl ethers of oligoethyleneglycol with pendent chloromethyl and hydroxymethyl groups. For the choice of optimal conditions of film obtention we conducted preliminary investigations of different model systems. For this purpose, reacting capacity of different functional groups of polyfunctional epoxides in relation to piperazine was defined, along with the ways of its regulation. In order to fulfill this task, methodology of non-aqueous pH-titration of the investigated systems was preliminarily developed and quantitative estimation of all changes in the reacting system was conducted.

As a result of our investigation, elastic structured transparent film materials were obtained. We defined the possibility of regulation of film properties by chemical modification with toluene diisocyanate and epoxidized oils. Among film properties we should also note the following abilities:

-  Ability to swell in water and polar solvents;

-  Ability for ion exchange. The static exchange capacity was 3 meq/g;

-  Ability to sorb dyes effectively: Congo red, methyl orange etc.

Current research is conducted on the improvement of properties of the obtained stereochemical cross-linked polymers. In particular, the investigations focus on the possibility of creation of composition materials by nano- and ultrafine filling with the use of ashen-gel technology, as well as of chemical modification of polymeric matrix.