Лещенко И. Г., Абрамовский Е. Р.

Днепропетровский национальный университет имени Олеся Гончара


Wind flows and Solar radiation, as well as some other natural phenomena, are considered as renewable energy sources. The use of such sources started to develop very rapidly several decades ago. It was motivated by the necessity to replace some power plants, which are using the gradually exhausting fossil fuels. We will discuss the situation in the field of wind energy production. The annual growth of wind turbines capacity now very high and it is greater then the rate of development of any contemporary branch of industry. The share of wind power in the world energy production now is about 2 %, but in several countries it riches up to 15 %. The leading positions in this development possesses such countries as Germany, Spain, U.S.A., Denmark, China, Great Britain and some others.

Unfortunately, Ukraine is stile far behind the leaders in this field: At present time in Ukraine are operating 7 wind power stations with the total capacity about 200 MW. It is much less then 1 % of total value. Most of Wind Turbines are installed along the shores of Asov and Black seas, where wind potential in greater than on other territories. The thorough study of situation with energy supply indicates that there exist the real opportunity to increase sufficiently wind energy output in this country. One of the ways to solve the problem is development of Ukrainian offshore wind power plants. Very valuable experience in such use of wind turbines have Great Britain, Denmark, Germany and other countries. Nowadays there exist large number of offshore wind power plants, each of them is having the capacity within the range from 50 MW to 750 MW. Most of them belong to the countries bordering on the North sea and the Baltic sea. The main advantages of such wind turbines siting are: the availability of large continuous areas suitable for major wind plant and higher wind speeds, which generally increase with distance from the shore. There exist also problems and disadvantages like higher cost of wind turbine installation on the sea bed, its regular maintenance and so on. The use of contemporary technologies allows to overcame (at least partially) such disadvantages.

Ukraine has vast territories with swallow waters, and main of them is Sivash lake, having the total area more then 2.5 square kilometres and depth ranging from 0.5 m to 5 m. The analysis of possible use of megawatt category wind turbines, sited on the Sivash region, has been made by authors.

Another direction of wind energetics is related to the use of wind turbines sited on urban territories. In this case the prevailing technology is mounting the wind turbines on the top of buildings and structures. The advantage of such technology is availability of local and inexpensive power source, which can be used by residents of apartments and employees of the offices. In this case there exist also some problems which is necessary to solve. Main of them is the vibration of wind machine wich can be transferred to the building. But now the use of special chassis and of her devices allows to prevent such vibration and other harmful phenomena. It is easy to show, that development of offshore wind power plants and use of wind turbines on the territory of big cities can provide important contribution to energy supply in this country.