Spitsyna U. A., Dziad E. V., Neginets E. V.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


Social policy is a purposeful activity of subjects in order to ensure social security and create conditions for a safe social environment. In modern conditions, adverse trends and challenges in the social sector, due to the use of forms and methods of the policy management, seem to be attempts to fill new forms of social policy of the old content. According to the latest statistics, as of 2011 more than 160 million people still live on less than 50 U.S. cents a day and are considered extremely poor. Thus, for example, the poverty rate for the United States recently reached a top speed of over 17 years and reached 15.1%. In Asia, this proportion of the population ranges from 30 to 60%. All of these update necessity of the development and improvement of appropriate theoretical framework and the implementation of specific measures to overcome existing problems at the national and supranational levels.

The scientific interest is the experience of the European Union, for which social transfers are an important tool in the arsenal to reduce poverty and maintain food security.[1]

In 2010, 23% of the EU population exposed to poverty and social exclusion (AROPE: at risk of poverty exclusion). AROPE is a part of the population under severe material deprivation and poverty. In 21 of the 27 EU Member States children are the most exposed to this risk. The only exceptions are Denmark, Slovenia, Finland and Sweden.

8% of the inhabitants of the EU in 2010 can be considered as indigent. The main areas on which EU social policy oriented include old age, retirement, death benefit, disability, illness, pregnancy, child care, unemployment, the need to support the sick and elderly. On average, EU countries spend on financing of this sector 27.5% of GDP, 2/3 of which are spending on pensions and health care.

In 2010, total spending on social transfers on the EU government level was 50.6% of GDP and it tends to growing.[3]

Also worth noting that one of the important tools of the EU to combat poverty is the European Employment Strategy 2005 (the Lisbon Strategy). It is based on four pillars: 1) the combined recommendations for growth and employment (in conjunction with these recommendations now appear as guidance for macroeconomic and microeconomic policies in the EU for a period of three years); 2) national reform programs for each country; 3) the annual report of the European Commission on economic growth and employment, which analyzes 27 new national reform programs submitted by the Member States; 4) any recommendations made ​​by the Board.

Another important reference point for Ukraine should be the Europe 2020 Strategy. Within it its framework was designed "European anti-poverty policies," Its purpose is to reduce the level of poverty in the EU by increasing cooperation across the European Union.

This policy provides that 75% of the population aged 20 years to 64 years old must be employed and the number of people at risk of falling into poverty should be reduced by 20 million[2]

Moving of Ukraine to European integration should be accompanied by progress in human development, the Millennium Development Goals, and consequently achieving them set significantly higher targets in living standards of the general population.

The key objectives of the reform of the social security system are: reforming the current system of benefits, including minimizing occupational benefits and monetization of social benefits; improving the quality and efficiency of social services, the introduction of social passports of families and individuals which are turning to social services, developing of the individual programs for them; training of qualified personnel for social services; expansion of institutions providing social services, including the provision of key positions in non-governmental organizations, the implementation mechanism of support of community initiatives at the local level.

During the period of economic growth Ukraine has made significant progress in reducing absolute poverty. However, due to lack of effective policy measures, income inequality, which deepened during the transition period, is not reduced. As a result, the level of relative poverty remained unchanged for the past nine years.

Ukrainian society does not solve the problems of certain groups who often faced with social exclusion. This is a traditionally vulnerable groups (disabled, ethnic minorities, such as Roma, Crimean Tatars, etc.). The main objectives of the new poverty reduction strategy should be the elimination of the negative impact of financial crisis on the welfare of the population, defining groups that have the highest risk of social exclusion and to develop measures for their integration into society.[1]

In the conclusion to the main ways for the Ukraine social policy can be attributed:

1) reform of the state social policy, the effective income redistribution;

2) active struggle with corruption and social injustice through strengthened state control and reforms in the legal framework;

3) measures to anti-discrimination attitudes among the public;

4) measures to reduce unemployment. promoting labor mobility, modernization of labor markets;

5) the pursuit of economic development, which will lead to higher employment and reduce poverty in the whole territory of the country.

The list of references:

1. EU-25: Future Social Policy [Web resource]. – Access mode: http://www.chelt.ru/ 2005/3-05/ec25_3-05.html

2. Current Population Survey (CPS), 2009 [Web resource]. – Access mode: http://www.census.gov/did/www/saipe/data/model/info/cpsasec.html

3. Statistical Abstract of the United States. W., 2010 [Web resource]. – Access mode: http://www.rusus.ru/?act=read&id=155