Dolgoborodova S., Tsvetaeva E.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


Ukraine has huge reserves of black soil – the best soil in the world. However, the current situation with the ground is handling. Domestic waste disposal is an issue that is important to the management of any urban area. Cities without a functioning waste-disposal plan face risks of disease running rampant and economic activity grinding to a halt.

Prior to the Industrial Revolution, what was considered waste was mostly vegetable matter, bones, wood, fire ash and dead bodies. This material was buried in the ground to act as compost. People repaired and continued to use whatever they could, so recycling was the norm. Waste disposal systems were developed as a result of increased populations in city environments and increased types of waste. At the beginning of the twentieth century, paper cups and towels began adding to the debris, and by 1953, TV dinners were created, resulting in more disposable packaging waste [1].

About 500 years BC in Athens was issued the first known edict banning throw garbage on the streets, providing for the organization of special landfills and dump the waste scavengers prescriptive no closer than a mile from the city. Since the garbage deposited in different places in rural areas. As a result of urban growth vacant space in their neighborhood declined, were unpleasant odors, increased the number of rats, caused by landfills, became intolerable. Freestanding dumps were replaced wells for storage of garbage.

A landfill may offer a cheap solution to large amounts of trash, but incineration can quickly reduce the volume. An efficient and environmentally sound incinerator does not simply burn whatever trash there is lying around. Scrubbers and filters prevent acidic gases from release and prevent ash from burning into the air. Some incinerators recycle and reuse refuse as fuel to burn non-recyclable materials.

Incineration reduces waste materials into their base components by burning them. This process generates heat, which is then used for energy. The by-products of this disposal method include various gases and inert ash. Incineration produces various levels of pollution depending on the incinerator design and the waste material being burned [2]. Filters can minimize the pollution. Incineration has a higher financial value. However, it is more expensive than disposing in a landfill. Incineration reduces waste volume by up to 90 percent of the original refuse. The resulting ash can provide nutrients for hydroponic solutions. It is the preferred method for disposing of toxic chemicals and hazardous wastes.

 Open burning of solid waste greatly reduces its volume, thereby decreasing the stress on a dumpsite. Open burning releases toxic gases directly into the atmosphere and has many negative effects on our environment. The poisonous gases that are released into the atmosphere are harmful for humans as well as other animals. Many cities that have used these stoves, soon abandoned them because of the deterioration of the air. The dumping of wastes remains one of the most popular methods for solving this problem.

 Making a new product requires a lot of materials and energy: raw materials must be extracted from the earth, and the product must be fabricated and then transported to wherever it will be sold. Reduction and reuse are the most effective ways you can save natural resources, protect the environment, and save money. Recycling has two main benefits for the environment:

· It reduces energy wastage due to the burning of harmful fossil fuels during production.

· It reduces the amount of waste that is either incinerated (which itself produces harmful fumes) or placed a landfill site.

Recycling is the most environmentally friendly method to dispose of waste because it does not add any waste material. The downside of recycling is that only certain items can be recycled, and processing plants are expensive to operate and maintain.

Of course, the experience of each country is unique in its kind. In each case, the solution of problems related to the disposal of solid waste, must comply with the specific region. It is important to take into account the situation in the economy of the state, the state of the existing infrastructure for the collection and disposal of solid waste, and, in the end, the ability and willingness of society to embody the political decisions in real life.

The list of references:

1. Web resource. – Access mode: 2009/08/06/solid

2. Web resource. – Access mode: municipal/index.html