Джумаєв А. Г., Панасюк І. М.

Дніпропетровський національний університет імені Олеся Гончара


Fraternal friendship between the Ukrainian and Turkmen peoples has deep historical roots. We are united by common aspirations and hopes of our peoples. Thoughts and ideas that are expressed in the immortal works of Taras Shevchenko, are in tune with the world-famous poetry of Makhtumkuli. These two poets are heralds of freedom, which our people were dreaming about for a long time. It is symbolic that in the center of Kyiv, there is a monument to the great poet, thinker and philosopher Makhtumkuli Fragi, and in Ashgabat there is a monument to the great Ukrainian poet Taras Shevchenko. On the basis of national interests, Turkmenistan and Ukraine have constantly improved equal partnership and built relations based on mutual understanding, respect, development of political dialogue at all levels, friendship enhancing and cooperation between two peoples.

Turkmenistan recognized Ukraine as an independent state on December 20, 1991. Diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Turkmenistan were established on October 10, 1992. Since this moment the political contacts between two countries have been active and fruitful at the highest level and have assisted the development of Ukrainian-Turkmen cooperation. The need of their further advance is connected, first of all, with the necessity to enhance Ukraine's economic presence in the Central Asian region and to ensure the provision of hydrocarbons to the country. More than 20 years have passed since the establishment of diplomatic relations between Ukraine and Turkmenistan (October 10, 1992).

All reached agreements were embodied in the legal framework. It consists of 100 documents on interstate, intergovernmental, inter ministerial and interregional basis. Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation between Ukraine and Turkmenistan, the Protocol of cooperation and coordination between the foreign ministries of two countries, as well as several other important bilateral documents have laid a solid foundation for further development of bilateral cooperation in all fields. Based on the results of the initial negotiations (October 10, 1992) five bilateral agreements were signed, among them are:

1) Joint Statement of the Presidents of Ukraine and Turkmenistan;

2) Agreement between Ukraine and Turkmenistan to transfer people sentenced in imprisons for further punishment;

3) Agreement between Ukraine and Turkmenistan on regulation of the resettlement process and the protection of the rights of immigrants;

4) The program of cooperation between the Ministry of Defense of Ukraine and the Ministry of Defense of Turkmenistan;

5) The agreement between the Donetsk Region State Administration of Ukraine and Khyakimliks Balkan province of Turkmenistan on trade and economic, scientific and technical and cultural cooperation.

 Both countries have agreed to promote the development of new forms of relations through industrial cooperation, creation of joint ventures, joint stock companies. In return for gas supply, Ukraine has agreed to provide the services of equivalent value; in particular, it conducts transport and research work and geologic exploration in Turkmenistan, training Turkmen military personnel in Ukraine.

 Ukraine has proclaimed its European integration course, but at the same time pays attention to the development of mutually beneficial cooperation with Turkmenistan. For Ukraine, independent neutral Turkmenistan is one of the most important trading partner, bilateral relations between states have a special status. Ukraine is interested in cooperation with Turkmenistan, which also possesses significant resources of cotton, raw materials for the food and pharmaceutical industries. For Ukraine, Turkmenistan is a traditional sales outlet for domestic equipment, especially for the oil and gas complex of Turkmenistan.

 Turkmenistan is well endowed with energy resources. It takes fourth place in the world ranking in terms of gas (after Russia, Iran and Qatar). Gas reserves are estimated at 15.5 trillion 3 million cubic meters, and oil – about 6.3 billion tons. Priority direction of economic relations between the two countries is the delivery of Turkmen natural gas to Ukraine, which is the basis of foreign trade. Since 1995, 16 billion 3 million cubic meters of gas have been sent to Ukraine. For several years the trade turnover between Ukraine and Turkmenistan has exceeded $ 2 billion. Ukraine ranked first among the states that are trade partners of Turkmenistan. Foreign trade turnover of goods and services, according to the National Institute of Statistics and Information of Turkmenistan (NIGS and IT) for 10 months in 2010 was the following: Turkmenistan's exports to Ukraine – 2,372,53 billion, imports – 311.66 million , balance – 1060.87 billion.

Also such industries as construction materials, mechanical engineering and metal working, chemical, light, flour and cereals have the positive impacts on the economic growth. The rate of growth of physical volumes in these industries is in the range of  130–180%. The structure of exports from Ukraine to Turkmenistan (according to the State Customs Service of Ukraine) can be characterized by these numbers: metallurgical products – 59.5%, engineering – 14.4% food – 10.7%, chemical products – 4.1% of the product stone, plaster and cement – 0.6% -0.5 energy, wood, paper and pulp – 0.4%, products of light industry – 0.3%, other products – 1%. The structure of imports from Turkmenistan to Ukraine is the following: petroleum gases and other gaseous hydrocarbons – 99.7%, petroleum oils, and polymers of propylene and linseed oil – 0.1%, light industry products – 0.1%, other products – 0 1%.

 Among the traditional areas of fruitful cooperation, the construction industry should be mentioned particularly, which the Ukrainian companies involved in. During 2007–2010, the total investment from Turkmenistan to Ukraine amounted to 52.4 million U.S. dollars. The Ukrainian investment in the Turkmenistan's economy is 11.9 million. Today mutually profitable and successfully developed Ukrainian-Turkmen cooperation based on trust and understanding, has great potential for further growth for the benefit of our peoples and nations. Creation of an atmosphere of partnership and reliability within the Ukrainian-Turkmen relations promotes proximity of our states on many issues of domestic and foreign policy, mutual support in international organizations and at representative forums. We are convinced that the continued implementation of the reached agreements by both sides, the positive experience of mutually beneficial cooperation and implementation of the existing potential of our countries will create a solid foundation for the launch of the Ukrainian-Turkmen relations to a qualitatively higher level.