Dorogan V., Posudiyevs'ka O. R., Tsokur N. I.

Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University


The chemical industry provides the national economy a large variety of products. The life of modern society would be impossible without them. As a result of chemical processing of fossil fuels (coal, oil, shale and turf) the national economy receives such important products as coke, engine fuels, oils, flammable gases and other organic substances. The bases of chemical technology are also used in the rocket –building and in the military field (manufacturing of weapons, bullet-proof vests, means of protection against radiation, armor for tanks). Due to chemistry, modern metallurgical industry and mechanical engineering, space technologies, air and motor transport, manufacturing of construction materials and of the majority of consumer goods developed very rapidly. Modern investigations in the technical sphere are aimed at the improvement of the quality of products, creation of new materials with certain properties, development of manufacturing with the purpose of production of goods for electronics, medicine, high-quality plastics and biotechnological products.

 The problems of chemical industry include the increase of prices for raw materials and energy, pollution of environment, necessity of purification equipment, costs for large-scale scientific research as well as design engineering being necessary to ensure a high technical and economic level of new manufacturing. The most part of toxic waste is created in Donetsk, Dnepropetrovsk, Lugansk, Zaporozhye and Kirovograd regions.

 Modern technologies allow to obtain synthetic rubber with better properties. Much attention is paid to the development of composite materials consisting of components with different properties. These materials include the basis with the distributed reinforcing elements: fiber and the pieces of glass, metal, wood, plastic, etc. A large number of possible combinations of components allow to obtain various composite materials. As a result of combination of poly- and monocrystalline nanowires (polyester, phenol and epoxy resins) we receive materials which are not inferior to steel by strength, but they are easier 4-5 times.

 Specialists of various chemical institutions in Ukraine carry out intensive investigations on the improvement of production of technical materials. For example, The State Foundation for Fundamental Research and the State Agency for Science, Innovation and Informatization of Ukraine hold competitions for young scientists who contribute to the development of science. In particular, in projects of last year the focus was on the new methods of manufacturing electrodes; the study of the activation of environmentally hazardous substances, as well as of the air pollutants in order to attract them as valuable reagents; the development of scientific principles of isolation and purification of substances in order to create innovational functional materials. On the basis of the investigation of some elements in electrochemical reactions new modern methods were created for improvement of environmental monitoring of Ukrainian water basins, as well as for determination of toxic forms of metals in natural waters. There were proposed new ceramic composite materials providing effective protection of biological and technical objects from exposure to electromagnetic radiation (such composite materials have high physical and mechanical, as well as performance, aesthetic and hygienic properties. They are environmentally friendly and durable).

 The members of the sub-department of high-molecular compounds of Dnepropetrovsk National University conduct their own research. One of the types of their activity is the creation of new compositions based on liquid rubbers, the study of physical and chemical properties of these compositions, the investigation of design of manufacturing powerful utility materials (rocket fuel).

 According to the above-mentioned facts, we can conclude that chemistry is constantly developing, and it gives us an opportunity to discover new horizons. However, modern chemistry has also given into human hands an effective means of reducing the length of human life. Scientific achievements used for the good of people, not always practical results of scientific discoveries are exactly those as it was expected. Every success in the conquest of nature inevitably entails, along with benefits, the appearance of new challenges – environmental and ethical. Certainly, technological progress is necessary and important for the achievement of sustainable development, but another factor is the system of values of the society, figuratively speaking, its “wisdom” – the ability to use natural resources reasonably and efficiently.