Shcherback D. V., Shevtsov V. U., Timoshenko Zh. I.
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
THROLLED ROCKET PROPULSION SYSTEMS ON THE PASTY UNITARY FUEL
While the carrier rocket fly in gravitational field its energy effectiveness increases in case of leading out the useful payload on the orbit with maximum possible boost. Nevertheless, in the atmosphere the boosting of carrier rocket is limited by maximal possible inertial и aerodynamic loads. While loading out the useful load on the orbit of carrier rocket is reducing because with outputting the fuel, the speed and flight altitude is rising, and decreases with increasing altitude atmospheric density. Because of that for flight with maximal possible loads (boosting it) is necessary to achive and deep regulate the thrust of propulsion systems. It gives the possibility to realize flight with max. possible inertial and aerodynamic loads on the whole lasting of moving the stage of the launcher, also it permits to extend the range of the mass of the out loaded payload on the orbit, and permits to reduce the exclusion zone for launcher’s stages falling.
While using the unregulated rocket propulsion systems the thrust is determined by max possible inertia load at the end of the propulsion system work, when almost all fuel is outputted and the mass of the stages is minimum. In that case, in stage of flight starting, when it mass is max., the permanent thrust of the propulsion system can not provide the flight with max possible loads (boosting), that decreases the energy efficiency of carrier rocket.
In countries pretending to be a leader in space technics, some works are provided for increasing sustainer rocket engines with thrust operational regulation on solid. In sustainer rocket engines with thrust operational regulation on liquid fuel every components is given to combustion chamber and the mixing of them is taking part while the engines working but that in regulation the thrust in a wide range created troubles with providing the high fullness and ressistantness of combustion. The necessity in providing the completeness and stableness of the fuel combustion on the whole range of thrust regulating compels to turn off the nozzles groups in multinozzles combustion chamber or to use the adjustable nozzles, that complicities the engine’s construction. Nowadays, there are created throttled liquid rocket engines with unregulated injector heads with thrust that doesn’t exceed the exponent 2000 kg. The creating throttled liquid rocket engines with thrust with the exponent not more than 7000 kg has demanded a new approach to carburetion. Difficulties of creating sustainer rocket engines with thrust operational regulation that works on the liquid or solid fuel creates the favorable conditions for realizing that is being provided in Ukraine since 1976 the elaboration of regulated propulsion system with a compulsory fuel of a paste unitary fuel to combustion chamber. The uncured solid fuel (fuelpaste) is used in that engine, its components are well mixed on a factory. In consequence, the quality of fuel paste combustion is not addicted to conditions of its receing in combustion chamber, and it is not changing while regulating the thrust of engine in a wide range. Because of that, the creating of regulated propulsion to paste fuel, in difference to propulsion system on a liquid fuel, doesn’t create serious technique difficulties. Researches in carrier rocket with sustainer rocket engines with thrust operational regulation, that works on a unitary paste fuel have shown, that it can be much more effective than carrier rocket with unregulated sustainer rocket engine.
In the first start of rocket engine on a pasty fuel it was necessary to provide the negotiation power (intensity torch) starting gasifier and the time of its work with spending the pasty fuel. In consequence the starting way, has been found, that hasn’t admitted any rejections.
Experimental researches of rocket engines on the unitary paste fuel for some tasks have shown, that thinks to the thrust, these engines in difference to liquid rocket engine on 10–30 % have better dimensions and weight characteristics and can form them a competition.