«Экономика и менеджмент – 2013: перспективы интеграции и инновационного развития». >> Том 3

Dziuba Radosław mgr, assistant of Department of World Economy and European Integration,

Faculty of Economics and Sociology, University of Lodz, (Lodz, Poland)


Enlargement the European Union is one of the main priorities of the EU. It is clear that the candidate countries to the European Union can not be seen equally in terms ofeconomic development, demographic and absorption of Foreign Direct Investment. Often candidates require many reforms and assistance from external sources that supporteconomic development, innovation and adaptation in many areas of the economy. One of the sources of external finance, the necessary reforms needed for the candidate countriesis Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance IPA European Union. It is a program of technical and financial assistance to countries wishing to join the European Union. In the 2007–2013 budgetary period, he was replaced by a number of EU programs (PHARE, PHARE CBC, ISPA, SAPARD, CARDS and financial programs for Turkey), created for thecandidate countries, including Polish. IPA funds have two main objectives: firstly provide a means for co-financing costly and difficult reforms that all candidate countries mustcarry out in order to prepare for membership in the EU and of the resulting full participation in EU policies [1–2].

Secondly, the aim is to prepare countries after their accession to the EU to use the Structural Funds, which will provide assistance in upgrading their infrastructure andsupport for long-term economic and social convergence with the EU in view of the Europe 2020 [3–4].

In particular, funds from the IPA support candidate countries in building institutions, developing civil society and the conduct of economic and administrative reforms. Thecurrently beneficiaries IPA funds are: Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Iceland, Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey. Althoughthe IPA is an instrument of foreign policy, it is considered a special honor also for regional policy, because it is addressed to potential EU Member States. In 2007–2013, the IPA had abudget of € 11.5 billion. In the next programming period 2014–2020 (IPA II), for support from the fund will be allocated € 11.7 billion [5].

Funding will be covered by the five main policy areas, generally suitable for existing IPA components II, ie the transformation process towards the EU and capacity building foreconomic growth; regional development; employment, social policy and human resources development; development of agriculture and rural development; development of regionalterritorial cooperation. Effective use of the IPA pre-accession funds creates economic growth and innovation in the economy of the candidate countries as evidenced by the increase inGDP of Montenegro or the increase in spending on research and development in this country (increased investments R&D in the years 2009–2013 from the level of 0.13 % of GDP to alevel of 0, 45 % of GDP) [6–8].

Through this type of investment will expand the level of innovative capacity of the country which will help to increase the absorption of pre-accession funds in the long term.It should be noted, however, that the utmost importance for the efficient and effective use of funds is involved in consultations with the civil society sector, business environmentand other individuals about the importance of not only centralized but in particular regional and local level. This allows you to noticing the real needs within individual programs andin a more effective and efficient way to allocate resources from pre-accession funds, and in the later perspective of the Structural Funds and the Cohesion Fund for the finalbeneficiaries [9].

It is also important transparency and the fight against corruption, which is one of the main objectives of pre-accession funds. The progress in the consolidation of the rule oflaw, increase transparency and combat corruption contributes directly to the effective implementation of pre-accession aid and overall economic growth. In the process of the useof IPA funds an important element from the point of view of the European Commission is decentralization. In the case of the candidate countries, this is often the main problem ofincreasing the capacity of absorption of pre-accession funds. It is therefore important to carry out training and financial support for the administration at the local level, becauselow-skilled workers this is a huge risk that local governments will not be able to discharge the duties delegated to them under the decentralization process in particular with regard tofinancial management, public procurement units, institutions audit and structures to combat fraud, etc.

It is recommended primarily organizing and conducting practical training for employees of local and regional authorities, appropriations for campaign information –communication about the opportunities posed by EU funds, such as information campaigns, creation of databases containing anonymous copies of applications approved forfunding to enable sharing of experiences and good practices from the previous use of funds. It should be noted, however, that the reforms carried out with funds allow for theefficient and effective use of pre-accession funds which generates growth of entrepreneurship and innovation among the candidate countries and allows for economic growth in thelong term.

The list of references:

1. Molendowski E. Integracja handlowa w Nowych Państwach Członkowskich (UE-10). Doświadczenia i wnioski dla innych krajów Europy Środkowej i Wschodniej. – Kraków, 2012.

2. Muś J. Chorwacja w Unii Europejskiej. Łódź : Uniwersytet Łódzki, 2011.

3. Wysokińska Z. Integracja europejska. Rozwój rynków. Rekomendacje dla procesu rozszerzania z Unią Europejską.

4. Wysokińska Z., Witkowska J. Integracja europejska. Europeizacja polityki ekonomiczno-społecznej w Unii Europejskiej i umiędzynarodowienie rynków Nowych Krajów Członkowskich Europy Środkowej iWschodniej. – Warszawa : PWN, 2010.

5. Commission Implementing Decision of 18.11.2011 on a Multi-annual Indicative Planning Document (MIPD) 2011–2013 for Montenegro Brussels, 18.11.2011 COM(2011)8220 final.

6. European Commission – Enlargement. Overview – Instrument for Pre-accession Assistance [Electronic resource]. – Mode of access: http://www.ec.europa.eu/enlargement/instruments/overview/ index_en.htm 1/04/2014

7. Strategia rozszerzenia i najważniejsze wyzwania na lata 2012–2013. Projekt opinii K R. Sprawozdawca: Luc Van Den Brande (PPE/BE).

8. Projekt rezolucji złożony w następstwie oświadczeń Rady i Komisji zgodnie z art. 110 ust. 2 Regulaminu w sprawie sprawozdania z postępów Czarnogóry w 2012 r. (2012/2860(RSP)) Charles Tannock.

9. Raport KE dot. strategii rozszerzenia i najważniejsze wyzwania dla Czarnogóry. Brussels, 10.10.2012 SWD(2012) 331 final.