Koshevyy Mykola Senior Lecturer, Department of economics and business management
Oles’ Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University, Ukraine
HIGH-TECH ENTERPRISES AS INSTITUTIONAL BASIS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF KNOWLEDGE-BASED PRODUCTION
Size high-tech sector and the extent of high technologies usage determine the scientific, technical and economic potential of the country. The assignment of definite sectors, industries and technologies to high-tech ones is rather conventional, that is why the industry does not represent a homogeneous set of industries and technologies. The characteristics of high-tech industries are increased level of R&D expenditures, significant part of the value added in volume of production, intensive innovation activity.
According to the identification of Ukrainian high-tech industrial enterprises Methodology, approved by the Ministry of industrial policy of Ukraine, 08.02.2008, № 80 high-tech industrial enterprise is a company that produces high-tech products, and also provides design, development and marketing of new products and/or innovative production processes through the systematic use of scientific and technical knowledge, which is defined by the following main criteria: large proportion of high-tech products in the production structure, which is competitive in the international market, high value-added and high productivity, the production of new goods and/or new production processes, substantial usage of intermediate high-end products for the production of final goods (with a high proportion of high-tech products purchases for the needs of domestic production), usage of high-tech production methods and high-tech processes, the presence of a significant proportion of employees with the technology-oriented professions, making the significant investment in internal and external R&D, making the significant volumes of investment in technical and technological re-equipment .
As O. B. Salikhova underlines, the high-tech industrial enterprise – is an entity that through the application of advanced industrial technology and skills of employees with the technology-oriented professions produces high-tech products, as well as systematically uses scientific and technical knowledge, designs, develops and markets new products getting high added value .
Definition of high-tech industries given by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) considers three components – the share of R&D expenditure in the industry, the share of high-tech products as part of a complete set of goods and the share of R&D personnel of a company .
According to the analysis of R&D production expenditures in OECD countries it is proposed to refer to knowledge-based or high-tech industries those which exceed the knowledge-rate of 3,5%, and for the leading knowledge-based technologies this rate must be greater than 8,5% [4, p. 61].
The current state of scientific and technological potential of Ukraine is characterized by the fall in the knowledge-intensive production and the level of knowledge-based work. The result is a lack of competitive domestic equipment and technological processes, the growth of import substitution and increased dependence on foreign markets, which has become one of the major factors hindering the development of knowledge-intensive sectors of the national economy.
While high-tech manufacturing, which are based almost in all regions of Ukraine, form a single large-scale research institution able to effectively produce world-class results, however, the scientific, technological and innovation spheres of the national economy do not properly act as a source of economic growth. This state of the specified scope is associated with the following problems:
- pace of development and the structure of science, technology and innovation sector do not meet the demand for advanced technology from the economy;
- offered world-class scientific results are not used in the economy due to the low sensitivity of the business sector to innovation;
- in scientific, technological and innovation spheres the loss of personnel and reduction of material and technical means is going on;
- threat of reorientation of domestic science onto solving the problems of other countries innovative development and turning Ukraine into an exporter of goods and services with low added value, including intellectual labor sphere.
The solvation of these problems is turned to reaching the strategic objectives of an innovative model of economic development, which has to be based on the quality of political and economic institutions. However, the institutional framework in Ukraine does not meet the market reforms tasks, it retains many obstacles to innovation. This implies the need for improved legislation, public administration system of the partnership.
The list of references:
1. Методика ідентифікації українських високотехнологічних промислових підприємств, затверджена наказом Міністерства промислової політики України від 08.02.2008 р. №80.
2. Саліхова О. Б. Оцінка високотехнологічної виробничої сфери – фундамент для створення дієздатної інноваційної стратегії держави [Electronic resource] / О. Б. Саліхова. – Access mode : http://nbuv.gov.ua/portal/Soc_Gum/EProm/2010_49/st_49_13.pdf
3. Hatzichronoglou T. Revision of the High-Technology Sector and Product Classification [Electronic resource]: Сайт OECD library / T. Hatzichronoglou // OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers. – Paris : OECD Publishing, 1997. – 1997/2. – 26 p. – Access mode : http://search.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf/?cote=OCDE/ GD(97)216&docLanguage=En
4. Варшавский А. Е. Наукоемкие отрясли и высокие технологии: определение, показатели, техническая политика, удельный вес в структуре экономики России / А. Е. Варшавский //Экономическая наука современной России. – 2000. – №2. – С. 61–83.