Rudenko V. V., Nedzvetsky V. S., Osadcha O. V.
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
THE PLACE OF DIABETES IN METABOLIC DISORDERS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS
The problem we are studying concerns metabolism disorder. We study one of the most common diseases, diabetes. We are engaged in research into the influence and effects of this illness on the organism.
The primary objective of my research is to assess the biochemical change in the nervous system and the influence of this change on the functional level.
Diabetes belongs to the group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. This high blood sugar produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst), and polyphagia (increased hunger).
There are two main types of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes used to be called juvenile-onset diabetes. It is usually caused by an auto-immune reaction where the body’s defence system attacks the cells that produce insulin. The reason causing it is not fully understood. People with type 1 diabetes produce very little or no insulin. The disease may affect people of any age, but usually develops in children or young adults. This form was previously referred to as «insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus».
Type 2 diabetes used to be called non-insulin dependent diabetes or adult-onset diabetes, and accounts for at least 90 % of all cases of diabetes. It is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency, either or both of which may be present at the time diabetes is diagnosed. The diagnosis of type 2 diabetes can occur at any age.
Untreated, diabetes can cause many complications. Serious long-term complications include cardiovascular disease, chronic renal failure, and diabetic retinopathy (retinal damage). Thus, adequate treatment of diabetes is important, as well as blood pressure control and lifestyle factors such as stopping smoking and maintaining a healthy body weight.
Both types 1 and 2 are chronic conditions that cannot be cured.
All forms of diabetes increase the risk of long-term complications. These typically develop after many years, but may be the first symptom in those who have otherwise not received a diagnosis before that time. The major long-term complications relate to damage to blood vessels. Diabetes doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease.
Diabetes also damages the capillaries. Diabetic retinopathy, which affects blood vessel formation in the retina of the eye, can lead to visual symptoms including reduced vision and potentially blindness. Diabetic nephropathy, the impact of diabetes on the kidneys, can lead to scarring changes in the kidney tissue, loss of small or progressively larger amounts of protein in the urine.
Another risk is diabetic neuropathy, the impact of diabetes on the nervous system – most commonly causing numbness, tingling, and pain in the feet, and also increasing the risk of skin damage due to altered sensation. Diabetic neuropathies are a family of nervous disorders caused by diabetes. People with diabetes can, over time, develop nerve damage throughout the body. Some people with nerve damage have no symptoms. Others may have symptoms such as pain, tingling, or numbness–loss of feeling–in the hands, arms, feet, and legs. Nerve problems can occur in every organ system, including the digestive tract, heart, and sex organs.
About 60 to 70 percent of people with diabetes have some form of neuropathy. People with diabetes can develop nerve problems at any time, but risk rises with age and longer duration of diabetes.
Several studies suggest a link between cognitive deficit and diabetes. Compared to those without diabetes, the research showed that those with the disease have a 1.2 to 1.5 –fold greater rate of decline in cognitive function, and are at greater risk.