Zdor A. A., Antonenko P. P., Osadcha O. V.
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
ETIOLOGY, CLINICAL SIGNS, PREVENTION AND TREATMENT OF BRONCHOPNEUMONIA IN CALVES
A cattle breeding is the main industry of agriculture. Milk and meat are the most valuable food. The state of the adult animals depends on the health of the young. Diseases of newborn calves lead to resistance reduction in animals and create the conditions for developing other diseases. The necessary conditions for increasing the productivity of animals, especially in the intensive breeding, are the prevention of non-communicable diseases and rational treatment of animal diseases.
Bronchopneumonia is one of the most common diseases in young farming animals. By definition of S. S. Abramov, bronchopneumonia is a disorder characterized by inflammation of the bronchi and lungs parenchyma, poor blood circulation and gas exchange with increasing respiratory distress, and the intoxication of the organism.
We had set a task of treating the sick calves with the help of new herbal extracts – phitopank and phitohol.
Phitohol is the aqueous extract of medicinal plants, which includes a herbal of the Capsella bursa-pastoris, tincture of peppermint and valerian, tincture of belladonna, and glycerin, 10.4 g/l nitrogen, fructose and sucrose. This drug increases the resistance of organism to intoxication and helps the body to get over a pathological process.
Phitopank is the drug made of spirit tinctures of plants which include rhubarb root, fennel seeds, elecampane root, leafs of Menyanthes trifoliata, seeds of Conium maculatum. Phitopank causes increased protection against attacks of pancreatin, gives the opportunity to opt the enzyme preparations due to the presence of a large complex of biological substances in its composition, increases the immune status of the organism and has anti-inflammatory effect.
The study was conducted in farms of Dnipropetrovsk region. The object of the study was sick calves, aged 2 months, in which the disease of bronchopneumonia manifested itself in the acute form. Selection of calves was carried out on the basis of the analysis of the clinical state, the symptoms of which included the lack of appetite, decreased mobility, increased body temperature and respiratory activity, cough and serous catarrhal discharge from the nasal cavity. We selected two test groups, 5 calves in each.
The first group was a control one. For treatment of pneumonia, the calves of the control group were injected benzilpenitsillina sodium salt 3 times a day for 10 000 unit per 1 kg of live weight, made in 0.5 % novokain solution.
The experimental group included 5 calves, which were given phytoextracts – phitohol and phitopank internally, 30 minutes before feeding. The doze was based on 10 dropsof each drug per100 ml of water, boiled and then cooled to 36 0C. It was done twice a day for 10 days.
Every day during the treatment the clinical examination of animals was conducted (temperature, pulse rate, respiration and general condition of the animals).
On the third day of receiving the phytoextracts, the general condition of the experimental group of animals improved, on the 5th day the appetite improved and the temperature, pulse rate and breathing decreased to the borders of the physiological norm. On the 8th day the appetite was good, cough and nasal secretion were absent and wheezing was not heard.
On the 7th day of the treatment the animals of the control group improved their general condition. On the 14th day of treatment the indicators dropped to the borders of the physiological norm.
In the treatment of pneumonia with phitopank and phitohol, the overall condition of the animals came to normal faster than with the conventional treatment with antibiotics. Such indicators of medicines with natural components which have no side effects give the ground to talk about their prospects in use for therapeutic and preventing purposes.