Babicheva V. V., Severinovskaya E. V., Osadcha O. V.
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
REORGANIZATION’S SINGULARITY OF THE CENTRAL AND PERIPHERAL MECHANISMS OF REGULATION OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OF THE GASTRO-DUODENUM WITH EXPERIMENTAL HEPATITIS
The amygdala represent one of the key structures of the limbic system of the brain – they are involved in organizing a wide spectrum of motivationally and emotionally colored behavioral reactions, one of the most important components of which consists of changes in the function of the internal organs. Electrical and chemical stimulation of the nuclei of the amygdala’s complex has been shown to induce changes in heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration, as well as the activity of the gastrointestinal tract. The mechanisms by which the amygdala influences these functions are has still being studied. Studies of this question are of great practical value. Recent studies have established that lesions to the amygdala in a variety of brain diseases (epilepsy, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc.) are often accompanied by serious derangements of the functions of the internal organs. Analysis of existing published data provides evidence that the amygdala is a part of the central «autonomic» nervous system of the brain. Anatomically and functionally, it isassociated with all the major structures of this system (the limbic cortex, the lateral hypothalamus, the parabrachial nuclei, the bulbar autonomic centers). In particular, its central nucleus has considerable reciprocal connections with the nuclei of the vagosolitary complex – one of the major formations of the medulla oblongata, with direct involvement inviscerovisceral reflexes. Special experiments have demonstrated that the functional state of neurons in the complex consisting of the solitary tract nuclei and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, associated with the control of various autonomic functions, can be altered in conditions of electrical stimulation of the central nucleus of the amygdala.
Studies in recent years have shown that the nuclei of the vagosolitary complex contain specialized groups of neurons involved in a series of vagovagal (realized via the vagus nervous system) reflexes, which are significant for organizing coordinated motor activity in the upper parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Neuroanatomical data indicate that these neurons, constituting afferent and efferent blocks of the bulbar «gastric» center, are located in the middle part of the solitary tract nucleus and the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve. It can be suggested that one of the possible mechanisms of the influence of the amygdala on gastrointestinal tract is that activity is mediated via direct descending connections from its central nucleus with neurons in the «gastric» area of the vagosolitary complex and consists of modulation of their activity, leading to changes in the corresponding reflex reactions.
Imbalance of nitric oxide in the body can also be the cause of lesion of the gastrointestinal tract. Physiological activity of nitric oxide plays an important role in the functioning of the various systems of the body. The activity of nitric oxide is well studied in cardiovascular diseases and less in the gastrointestinal tract.
The main aim of our investigation is to find out the correlation between the periodic motor activity of the stomach, duodenum and amygdala activity under different changes in the functional state of the regulation’s mechanisms.
We carry out experiments to examine facts about motoric mechanisms. We try to confirm the hypothesis that amygdala’s activity changes under the influence of hepatitis and of nitric oxide disbalance. We managed to obtain convincing evidences showing that pathological process causes the upset of the balance in other organs and systems.
This evidence seems to be of practical interest for doctors and the theoretical importance for students of medicine and biological faculties. It is also of practical importance for studying physiological processes in the pathological conditions. This problem is very interesting and deserves closer attention and further study.