Knysh I. S.,Vakulenko F. E, Nosova T. V., Timoshenko Zh. I.
Oles Honchar Dnipropetrovsk National University
NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATION IN ROCKET TECHNOLOGY
Nanotechnology applications in space technology is one of the most important and promising directions. Sufficiently large-scale application of nanotechnology in space technology will allow radically to improve weight and size of a spacecraft, to prolong their stay on various orbits, to solve problems of power supply operation of these devices.
Entry into the third millennium coincided with a new stage in the development of miniature spacecraft technologies – micro-and nano-satellites. The period of single breakthrough results and the first successful experiments on creating small satellite is over; it is time to do regular systematic development of space-based systems midgetspacecraft. Small spacecraft are already widely used for remote sensing, environmental monitoring, earthquake prediction research ionosfery.If in the 90s of the last century the creation of miniature spacecraft was engaged mainly by universities and small private companies, in the 2000s to such developments actively and successfully joined large corporations.
In particular, we are talking about the use of coating silica nanoparticles for solar cells. Such nano-coatings are optically transparent and at the same time «push» any contaminants. Promising for space applications will nanomaterials having both high hardness, strength and ductility, which are unattainable in materials constructed from «ordinary» particulates.
Samples heat-protective and wear-resistant coatings deposited using plasma cluster technology. The method allows the creation of nanostructured multilayer coating implanted for a wide range of applications. For example, application of multilayered nanostructured thermal barrier coatings, in which as the main heat-shielding layers fibers of zirconium oxide are used. It will increase the impulse of the rocket engine thrust due to the failure of the cooling air curtain at the edge of the combustion chamber.
A promising new application of nano-satellites uses them as a base platform for conducting experiments in the field of nanotechnology, and materials testingnanocomponents.When using nanotechnology popular aviation industry composite materials, electroplating, antistatic coatings, adhesives, sealants can be made. Products manufactured using nanotechnology greatly exceeds those made by traditional methods.
Protection from ice on the skin of the aircraft may be only a few nanometers thick. International team of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh, described the new nanocoating. It was developed in the laboratory of professor of chemistry and petroleum engineering. It is easy to apply on any hard surface coating effectively prevents the formation of ice.
This study is the first practical application properties such burgeoning class of water-repellent substances now as superhydrophobic coatings. These finest films on the surface structure of lotus leaves resemble striated, thanks to the mass of microscopic grooves decreases the surface area to which water molecules can stick. The authors emphasize that, since the properties of ice are different from the properties of water, the ability to repel water can not easily be applied to the inhibition of icing.The researchers found that superhydrophobic coating can be formulated so as to prevent icing. This group has created a series of silicone resin coating with silicon nanoparticles ranging in size from 20 nanometers to 20 micrometers high. They were deposited on the aluminum plate, then these designs sweated strongly supercooled water (-20 degrees Celsius), simulating the freezing rain.
Scientists write that, although coating of silicon particles with the size less than 10 micrometers to repel water, but the coating particles less than 50 nanometers in diameter, completely prevent icing. Such small particle sizes mean a minimal contact with water – the water comes into contact only with an air gap between the particles and slides off the surface without freezing. Although not all superhydrophobic surfaces correspond to the composition, which were examined in the University of Pittsburgh, the researchers concluded that any type of coating particles of a particular size will repel the ice better than water.
The main objective is reducing weight, size and energy characteristics of micro-and nano-satellites (devices weighing less than 10 kg). Another problem is the launching of nano-satellites into orbit. Now it is realized the cluster launches of «kids» on the big boosters, but this method has its drawbacks. Scientists believe that the key issues miniaturization of satellites, among other things should include the creation of new technologies in the field of optics, communication systems, modes of transmission, reception and processing of large volumes of information. We are talking about nanotechnologies and nanomaterials, allowing two orders of magnitude lower weight and dimensions of devices displayed in the space. For example, the strength nanonikelya 6 times higher than the conventional nickel, which enables, when used in rocket engines to reduce the nozzle weight by 20–30 %.
NASA specialists have also developed and successfully tested a technology that can significantly reduce the weight of carrier rockets and thus increase their payload. It is about a composite cryogenic tank – a vessel for storing liquefied components of rocket fuel mixture. New composite kriobak weighs 30 % less than aluminum and is worth 25 % less.Most recently, the company «Giredmet» developed technology of rhenium materials (man-made, natural). Rhenium and its compounds are used in aviation and rocket constructions (multicomponent alloys for a new generation of aircraft and rocket engines). In general, the application of nanotechnology in the aviation and space provide a wide range of possibilities for a breakthrough in science.